Derived from a tree in the rain forests of Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. The bark, leaves, root, and fruits have been used as traditional remedies in many countries.
Extracts of graviola have been shown to have;
antiviral (1), antiparasitic, antirheumatic, astringent, emetic (2), antileishmanial and cytotoxic (3) (4) effects.
Graviola has also been shown to be effective against multidrug resistant cancer cells line (5) (4). There are no large scale studies in humans on the effects of graviola.
Alkaloids extracted from graviola may cause neuronal dysfunction and degeneration leading to symptoms reminiscent of Parkinson's Disease (6).top which will disappear aftering stopping usage.
Acetogenins, quinolines, isoquinolines, annopentocins and annomuricins (7). Coreximine and reticuline subfractions have been isolated from root bark (6).
Top Mechanism of Action;
Annonaceous acetogenins, a phytochemical isolated from the leaves, bark and twigs of graviola, are thought to be the active ingredient. The ethanolic extract of Annona muricata was found to inhibit the Herpes simplex virus (1). The ethyl acetate extract was found to be more active than the methanolic or hexanolic extracts. Extracts were shown to be effective against Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis promastigotes and the cancer cell line U 937 (3) and hepatoma cell lines(8) in vitro. Extracts were also shown to be lethal to the fresh-water mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata, which acts as a host for the parasitic worm Schistosoma mansoni (2).
Alkaloids from graviola have been shown to be detrimental to the survival of dopaminergic nerve cells in vitro. This may in turn lead to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. Graviola-induced cell death was inhibited by the supplementation of glucose suggesting that cell death was caused by energy depletion (6).
Graviola extracts have also been shown to be effective against the growth of Adriamycin resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) by blocking the cancer cell's access to ATP and by inhibiting the actions of plasma membrane glycoprotein (5).
Graviola may also have antidepressive activity due to its ability to stimulate serotonine receptors (7).
Little is known about the absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion of graviola.
Top Adverse Reactions;
Graviola may cause movement disorders and myeloneuropathy with symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease (6).
Top Literature Summary and Critique; There are no large scale studies in animals or humans on the effects of
1 Padma P, Pramod NP, Thyagarajan SP, Khosa RL. Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;61:81-3.
2 dos Santos AF,.Sant'Ana AE. Molluscicidal properties of some species of Annona. Phytomedicine. 2001;8:115-20.
3 Jaramillo MC, Arango GJ, Gonzalez MC, Robledo SM, Velez ID. Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp. Fitoterapia 2000;71:183-6.
4 Liaw CC, Chang FR, Lin CY, Chou CJ, Chiu HF, Wu MJ et al. New cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata. J Nat.Prod. 2002;65:470-5.
5 Oberlies NH, Chang CJ, McLaughlin JL. Structure-activity relationships of diverse Annonaceous acetogenins against multidrug resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) cells. J Med Chem. 1997;40:2102-6.
6 Lannuzel A, Michel PP, Caparros-Lefebvre D, Abaul J, Hocquemiller R, Ruberg M.Toxicity of Annonaceae for dopaminergic neurons: potential role in atypical parkinsonism in Guadeloupe. Mov Disord. 2002;17:84-90.
7 Roman G. Tropical myeloneuropathies revisited. Curr.Opin.Neurol 1998;11:539-44.
8 Chen JC, Tsai CC, Chen LD, Chen HH, Wang WC. Therapeutic effect of gypenoside on chronic liver injury and fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats. Am.J Chin Med. 2000;28:175-85.